Cryptography is described as the science of protecting information by transforming it into a secure format. This process is called encryption. Cryptography is used today to protect digital data. It is now officially a division of computer science that focuses on transforming data into formats that cannot be recognized by unauthorized users.

Cryptography is not only used to secure data or protect it from alteration, it also has authenticating functions. Cryptography is now widely used in various applications like banking transaction cards, computer passwords, and e-commerce transactions.

Generally, there are three cryptographic techniques being used: symmetric-key cryptography, hash functions, and public-key cryptography.